Ghazal 2, Verse 1


jaraa;hat tu;hfah almaas armu;Gaa;N daa;G-e jigar hadyah
mubaarak baad asad ;Gam-;xvaar-e jaan-e dard-mand aayaa

1a) wounds, a present; diamond, a gift; liver-wound, an offering--
1b) wounds, present, diamond, gift, liver-wound, offering--

2a) congratulations, Asad, the comforter of an afflicted soul came by
2b) congratulations, Asad, the sympathizer who has a compassionate soul came by


dard-mand : 'Afflicted, compassionate, sympathizing'. (Platts p.511).


;Gam-;xvaar : ''Devouring sorrow'; afflicted, sorrowful, sad; --commiserating, pitying, condoling, sympathetic; one who commiserates, or condoles, or sympathizes (with), a consoler, comforter; a sympathetic or intimate friend'. (Platts p.772)


By ;Gam-;xvaar the Advisor is meant, and the 'congratulations' are from the Shaikh. (2)

== Nazm page 2


Urdu text: Vajid 1902 {2}

Bekhud Dihlavi:

The ;Gam-;xvaar , who had gone to persuade the beloved and induce her to meet with me, has come back from there bringing gifts. (21)

Bekhud Mohani:

By the jaan-e dardmand is meant the Executioner, the beloved, Passion, or the Advisor. (16)


If anyone swallows a diamond, then his heart and liver are wounded, and if diamond powder is applied to a wound, there is extreme pain in the wound. (28)


;Gam-;xvaar can mean passion, and also the Advisor. Here only passion is meant, because these gifts come to the lover from the court of passion alone. (237)



A,B verses: {2,1}; {4,4}*, on 'list' verses; {4,5}; {5,8x}*; {6,1}; {6,8x}; {7,3}; {8,1}; {10,6}; {11,3x}; {14,5}*; {15,17x}; {15,18x}; {21,1}*; {21,8}; {21,13}; {22,5}; {26,2}*; {26,8}; {24,6}*; {27,1}*; {28,3x}; {29,3}*; {31,1}*; {33,3}; {33,7}; {34,6}*; {35}**, most verses; {37}; {41,4}; {42,2}*; {42,6}; {42,11x}; {44,4x}; {44,5x}; {47,3x}; {51,7x}; {53,5}; {53,12x}; {56,5}, enforced by verbs; {56,7x}; {57,3}; {57,6}; {57,7}**, Hali illustrates; {57,9}; {67,6x}; {68,6x}; {68,10x}; {71,3}*; {72,2}*; {75,6}; {77,3}*; {77,5}; {78,1}; {79,4x}; {80,3}; {80,11x}; {81,2}; {81,3}; {81,13x}; {82,2x}; {84,5x}, {86,8}*, discussion; {87,5}; {88,1}; {94,2}; {95,2}**; {96,1}; {96,5}; {97,9}; {97,10}*; {100,8}; {101,1}; {103,2x}; {103,3x}*; {104,4x}; {106,1}; {109,2x}; {114,1}; {114,5}; {115,1}; {119,9}; {125,3}; {129,4x}**; {130,3}; {130,7x}; {131,8}; {133,1}; {137,6x}*; {141,2}; {142,2}; {143,3}*; {145,4}; {145,9x}; {145,16x}; {146,5x}; {147,1}; {147,2}; {147,3}; {147,7x}; {149,8x}; {151,3}; {152,4}; {155,1}; {155,4x}; {158,3}; {158,5}; {162,1}; {162,10}; {163,2}; {163,3}; {163,4}*; {163,5}; {166,5}; {170,2}; {170,5}; {172,2}; {172,5x}; {175,7}; {182,2}; {187,1}*, discussion; {188,1}; {190,1}; {194,3}; {194,4}; {206,3}*; {206,4}; {209,6}; {209,7}; {212,7x}; {213,1}; {214,2}; {214,6}; {214,9}; {214,10}; {215,1}*; {215,7}; {216,2}*, Ghalibian evidence; {217,3}; {217,7x}; {219,6}**; {221,2}; {222,3x}; {223,2}; {226,1}; {226,4}*; {226,5}; {227,3}; {228,2}; {228,10}; {228,12x}; {228,13x}; {229,1}; {229,6}**, discussion; {230,1}; {230.5}; {230,7}*; {232,6} // {275x,4}**; {314x,5}; {314x,6}; {319x,7}; {320x,1}; {323x,7}*; {351x,3}**; {385x,4}; {428x,7}; {435x,4}*

JIGAR verses: {2,1}; {4,14x}; {7,4}; {16,1}; {17,7}; {20,4}; {21,11}; {30,2}**, with a discussion and list of 'heart and liver' verses; {35,1}; {35,4}; {35,6}; {36,7}, kalejaa ; {38,7}; {49,6}; {51,2}; {51,6x}; {56,5}; {61,9x}; {62,6}; {67,3}; {72,2}; {77,5}; {78,3}, with a list of 'blood of the liver' verses; {80,11x}; {85,5}; {88,3}; {99,1}; {106,3}; {114,1}; {120,11}; {138,7}; {149,10x}; {158,1}; {158,2}; {164,2}; {164,11}; {173,3}; {176,6}; {184,3}; {186,5}; {186,7x}; {204,6}; {210,4}; {210,8x}; {214,5}; {214,6}; {217,8x}; {230,5}; {232,8}; {233,2} // {282x,5}; {307x,6}; {319x,3}; {321x,1}; {398x,7}; {405x,3}; {405x,4}; {408x,8}; {426x,1}

There are some differences of arrangement with this verse. Arshi and Hamid place it as a fard right after the first ghazal; Bekhud Dihlavi and Bekhud Mohani and some other editions insert it as the last verse of {8}. On matters of ghazal ordering, I follow Hamid.

This is the first closing-verse in the divan that uses Ghalib's early pen-name, 'Asad'. For Ghalib's own account of how he came to change his pen-name, see {219,1}.

This is also the first verse to mention the 'liver' [jigar]. Not much is made of it here, but I wanted to start gathering together the 'liver' references. In the ghazal world, the liver appears to best advantage when contrasted with the heart; for extensive discussion, see {30,2}.

Faruqi maintains that the bringer of gifts could be the beloved, or the Advisor; but it could not be Passion itself (July 2000). I agree with Nazm and Faruqi. Why personify the abstract 'Passion' as a solicitous friend, when we have more developed and provocative candidates available? If the gift-giver is the beloved or the Advisor, we can also then reflect on their reasons for giving such gifts. How different, in fact, are the motives of the beloved and the Advisor?

The epithet dard-mand , literally 'pain-possessing', can apply to either the visited one (as in 2a), or the visitor (as in 2b). In either case, it can be read either ironically or sincerely (since in his heart the lover desires his destiny). This is the real relish of the verse-- isn't the visitor really doing the lover a favor, bringing him what he wants? And is the visitor truly a sympathizer with a compassionate soul, or simply a visitor to one in need of compassion? The ironies and complexities are inextricably rich. They rest on the meaning of ;Gam-;xvaar , literally 'grief-eater'. But who is the grief-eater? Again we see the i.zaafat in all its multivalent glory. For another look at a 'grief-eater', see {11,5x}.

The three kinds of gift have different nuances of meaning, but such nuances don't seem to be exploited here, except to show that every possible kind of gift is involved in this transaction. The more obvious reading (1a) groups the six items into three sets of two. But the reading (1b) is also enjoyably ironic; it evokes the coming of a visitor, arms loaded with a jumble of all kinds of amusements and comforts and thoughtful things for the sick or suffering one.

Such is the image of the kind (?) beloved; for her cruel counterpart, see {77,6}. On the general theme of the beloved as visiting the lover, see {106,2}. For another consoling sick-room visit, see {233,5}.

More to the point, this is also the first verse that employs Ghalib's excellently fruitful 'list' technique; grammatically, the first line consists of a sequence of six nouns, so that it remains quite opaque to interpretation until we hear the second line-- at which time it becomes radically open-ended. For for discussion and examples of 'list' verses, see {4,4}.